Mushshak / Super Mushshak Trainer


The MFI-17 Mushshak (The Proficient) is a light-weight, robust, two/three seats, single engine, predominantly all metal aircraft with tricycle fixed landing gear. It has been developed to meet US FAR 23 certification in categories normal, utility and aerobatics. It can operate from any short un-prepared strip and is completely independent of any kind of ground equipment.
Super Mushshak (The Agile) - advanced avionics is an upgraded version of Mushshak fitted with a more powerful engine, cockpit air-conditioning, electrical instruments, and electric cum manual elevator and rudder trim.

Training Role

Mushshak meets the requirement of a modern primary training syllabus and is an ideal basic trainer. Aircraft is ideal for:

  • Basic flight training
  • Instrument flying
  • Aerobatics, stalls and deliberate spins
  • Night flying
  • Navigation flying
  • Formation flying

Army Co-operation Missions

Besides primary flying training, Mushshak is also suited for a wide range of army co-operation missions including:

  • Forward air control
  • Forward area support with droppable supply containers
  • Reconnaissance
  • Artillery fire observation
  • Camouflage inspection
  • Border patrol
  • Liaison
  • Target flying and target towing for training of ground units

Technical Data

Engine (Mushshak)

  • Type: Textron Lycoming IO-360 A1B6
  • Power: 200 HP (at 2700 RPM at standard sea level conditions)
  • Cylinder: 04
  • Propeller: Two blade constant speed variable pitch from M/s Hartzell, USA
Engine (Super Mushshak)

  • Type: Textron Lycoming IO-540 V4A5
  • Power: 260 HP (at 2700 RPM at ISA conditions)
  • Cylinder: 06
Propeller (Mushshak)
A Hartzell, USA two-blade constant speed metal propeller is installed on the engine
Propeller (Super Mushshak)
Super Mushshak has been qualified with both three and two blade propellers from McCauley and Hartzell of USA respectively.
Time between overhaul (TBO) for engine and propeller is 2000 hours.

  • Spacious side by side cockpit giving contact between the pilot and the co-pilot / observer or between the student and the instructor for effective "watch me" instruction
  • Adjustable seats fitted with straps incorporating auto lock inertia reels
  • Typical avionic equipment configuration includes UHF/VHF radio, GPS, VOR, Transponder, ADF etc
  • Third crew member can be accommodated in the rear cabin
Fuel System

  • Based on two integral fuel tanks holding a total of 47 US gallons
  • Bendix RSA type fuel injection system
  • Houses engine driven fuel pump for normal operation
  • Electric fuel pump for emergency conditions
Flight Control System
Efficient dual flight controls including conventional centre stick type control columns and adjustable rudder pedals. Primary control surfaces are operated through a direct mechanical linkage.
Design Criteria
The basic design philosophy behind Mushshak offers an aircraft with:

  • Flexibility, covering both army co-operation and primary flying training
  • Excellent forward and downward visibility supplemented by a good rearward visibility
  • Good ground clearance even with bulky under wing stores and high crosswind capability for operation from narrow strips and roads
  • Up to 300 Kg/660 lbs external load carrying capability (including pylons)
  • Heavy duty landing gear
  • Large baggage compartment in the rear part of the cabin easily accessible through a door on the port side of the fuselage. This space can also accommodate a third crew member
  • Good handling characteristics
  • Good short/rough field performance
  • Fully aerobatic capability, maximum limit load factor +6/-3 in Aerobatics category
  • Ease of maintenance and repair even in field
  • Structure life of 8300 hrs
  • Low radar signature
Optional Equipment
The following optional equipment can also be made available on request:

  • Blind Flying Screen: There is a provision for installation and removal of blind screen for instrument flying.
  • Sun Blinds: Canopy perspex as well as rear cabin perspex can be provided with adjustable sunblind.
  • Third Seat: Aircraft incorporate fitting for the installation of third seat in the rear portion of the cabin.
  • Electric Trim: Reliable and effective elevator and rudder electrical cum manual trim can be installed easily.
  • Air Conditioner: One of the most effective and reliable Enviro R-134 environmental friendly air conditioning system can be installed.
  • Avionics suit: Customized avionics suit or _____ cock pit can be added as per customers request.
Main Data

  • Length: 7 m/23 ft (Mushahak)    7.15 m/23.5 ft (Super Mushshak)
  • Height: 2.60 m/8 ft 6 ½ in
  • Span: 8.85 m/29 ft
  • Wheel Track: 2.2 m/7 ft 2 ½ in
  • Wheel base : 1.58 m/5 ft 3 in

  • Wing Area: 11.9 m²/128 sq ft
  • Sweep Forward: 5°
  • Airfoil Thickness: 10%
  • Dihedral: 1.5°
  • Mounting angle of incidence: +2.8° nose up Wing chord to fuselage datum
Horizontal Tail

  • Span: 2.80 m/9 ft 2 in
  • Area: 2.10 m²/22.6 sq ft
  • Sweep: 0°
  • Airfoil Thickness: 12%
  • Dihedral: 0°
Vertical Tail

  • Height: 1.32 m/4 ft 4 in
  • Area: 1.52 m²/16.3 sq ft
  • Airfoil Thickness: 12%
  • Sweep, Leading Edge: 36°
  • Sweep, Trailing Edge: 8°


The users of Mushshak and Super Mushshak are:
  • Pak Army
  • Pakistan Air Force
  • Iran
  • RSAF
  • Oman
  • Syria
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Denmark

K-8 Jet Trainer


Karakoram-8 (K-8), Basic Cum Advance Jet Trainer, is co-developed by Aircraft Manufacturing Factory (AMF), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra, and China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation (CATIC). The aircraft is being used for imparting basic and operational jet training to newly inducted pilots at PAF Academy Risalpur. Its key features are:

  • Wide speed range and high maneuverability
  • Satisfactory flying qualities in accordance with the requirements set forth in MIL-F-8785C IV for highly- maneuverable aircraft
  • Good field of view and cockpit arrangement very close to a combat aircraft
  • Advanced turbofan engine with low specific fuel consumption and minimum operation and maintenance cost
  • State of the art equipment (including instrumentation, communication, navigation, etc.) satisfying the requirements of training pilots for next millennium
  • Highly reliable escape system
  • Advanced strap on environmental control system capable of providing cockpit air- conditioning both on the ground and in the air
  • Hydraulically operated wheel braking and nose wheel steering
  • Multi role capability for training
  • 8000 flight hours service life for airframe structure
  • Long endurance and high service ceiling adequate for a wide range of missions
  • Low lifecycle cost
  • Short turn-around time and low maintenance work load

Technical Data

Power Plant
K-8 is fitted with Honeywell GARRETT TFE 731-2A-2A modular turbofan engine with DEEC & hydro mechanical fuel control system.
Cockpit Layout
Cockpit is designed to meet the latest Military Specification of Aircrew Station Geometry and vision requirements. EFIS made by Collins is fitted in front and rear cockpits. UHF/VHF communication system, TACAN/RADIO COMPASS & ILS are available as per the customers requirement.
Egress System / Escape System
Highly reliable escape system incorporating two Martin Baker MK-10L fully automatic rocket assisted zero-zero ejection seats to ensure survival capability within the entire flight envelope.
Environmental Control System (ECS)
Incorporation of most effective ECS provides a roomy cockpit environment with air conditioning capability even on ground under an ambient temperature of -40 °C to +52 °C.
Fuel System
The aircraft fuel system consists of the fuel tanks and the fuel supply / transfer, vent/pressurization, fuel quantity measuring / indicating, refueling and fuel drain subsystems. The total fuel contained in two fuselage bladder-type rubber tanks and a wing integral tank is 2576 lbs. The capacity of drop tanks is 428 lbs each.
Engine Main Data GARRETT TFE 731-2A-2A

K-8 Taking off
  • Rated power Max static thrust at sea level : 3600 lbs
  • SFC : 0.502 lb/lb thrust hr (Max static thrust)
  • Air flow : 115 lbs /sec (take-off and max continuous)
  • Engine net weight : 812 lb
  • Pressure ratio : 13.9
  • Bypass ratio : 2.67
  • An access through which the engine is installed/removed, is provided on the belly of the fuselage. With this provision, replacement of the engine in the field takes 50 minutes

  • Overall length : 11.6 m
  • Overall height : 4.21 m
  • Wing area : 17.02 m2
  • Wing span : 9.63 m
  • Wheel track : 2.54 m
  • Wheel base : 4.442 m

  • Normal take-off weight : 3700 kg
  • Useful load : 943 kg
  • Internal fuel capacity : 780 kg
  • Weight empty : 2757 kg
  • Max take-off weight : 4332 kg
Flight Performance

  • Max level speed : 800 km/hr
  • Rate of climb at sea level : 30 m/s
  • Service ceiling : 13600 m
  • Built-in Range : 1560 km
  • Ferry range (with drop tanks) : 2140 km
  • Endurance : 3.2 hrs
  • Max endurance (with drop tanks) : 4.2 hrs
  • Un-stick speed : 185 km/hr
  • Touchdown speed : 160 km/hr
  • Take-off ground run : 440 m
  • Landing ground run : 530 m
  • Limit load factor : +7.33 g -3.0 g


The customers of K-8 are:
Zimbabwe airforce 's K-8
  • China
  • Pakistan
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Egypt
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Ghana
  • Venezuela
  • Bolivia
  • Zimbabwe

  JF-17 Thunder/FC-1



JF-17 Thunder is an advanced, light-weight, all weather, day / night multi-role fighter aircraft; developed as a joint venture between Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), Kamra and Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation (CAC) of China. It possesses excellent air-to-air and air-to-surface combat capabilities. The state-of-the art avionics, optimally integrated sub-systems, computerized flight controls and capability to employ latest weapons provides decisive advantage to JF-17 over adversaries of same class. This, all weather, multi-role light combat fighter has remarkable high combat manoeuvre ability at medium and low altitude. With effective firepower, agility and combat survivability, the aircraft is likely to emerge as a potent platform for any air force.


The first JF-17 prototype aircraft (called FC-1) was rolled out in May 2003. It made its first flight in August 2003. Later on, two more prototype aircraft were added for basic structure, flight qualities, performance and engine flight testing while two prototype aircraft were involved in comprehensive avionics flight testing. The basic flight testing was completed in 2007 which also marked the arrival of JF-17 Thunder aircraft in Pakistan where it was formally presented to the nation as a Pakistan Day gift on 23 March 2007. A Test and Evaluation Flight was established at PAC Kamra which carried out the detailed operational evaluation of the aircraft as well as the training of ground and air crew. The JF-17 aircraft has been formally inducted in Pakistan Air Force by replacing A-5 aircraft of No 26 Squadron. The aircraft has already participated in Farnborough Airshow in UK and Zhuhai Airshow in China in 2010.


Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) holds the exclusive rights of 58% of JF-17 airframe co-production work. A comprehensive infrastructure comprising state of the art machines and required skilled human resource has very quickly been developed at the Complex.The final assembly and flight testing of the aircraft was the first JF-17 co-production activity to start at PAC. The first PAC produced aircraft was handed over to Pakistan Air Force in November 2009. Since then, aircraft are being produced regularly to meet the required schedule. The co-production of sub assemblies and structural parts has also commenced and is sequentially attaining the sustained production status. Besides upgrading the production system, PAC has also upgraded its quality, technology and archive management systems to meet the production and management standards of a 3rd generation fighter aircraft.


Physical Parameters
Length 49 ft
Height 15.5 ft
Wingspan 31 ft
Empty Weight 14,520 lb

Performance Parameters
Maximum Take Off Weight 27,300 lb
Max Mach No 1.6
Maximum Speed 700 Knots IAS
Service Ceiling 55,500 ft
Thrust to Weight Ratio 0.95
Maximum Engine Thrust 19,000 lb
G Limit +8,-3
Ferry Range 1,880 NM

No of Stations 07
Total Load Capacity CCapacitycapability 8000 lb

Design Features

Aerodynamic Configuration

  • Bifurcated side air inlet with incorporation of latest BUMP intake technology for improved performance
  • Leading edge maneuvering flaps
  • Trailing edge flaps
  • Twin Ventral Fins
Landing Gear

  • Nose gear with steering
  • Main gear with paddle controlled hydraulic brakes and nti-skid braking system
Comfortable Cockpit Escape and Egress System

  • NVG compatible cockpit conforming to US MIL Standard, suitable for 3% to 98% percentile range of pilots.
  • Single Piece Stretch Acrylic Transparent Canopy providing a good all around Field of View
  • Ejection Seat
    • Latest Martin Baker high performance ejection seat
    • Canopy severance system for additional safety
    • French oxygen regulation system
    • Passive Leg Restraint System
Environment Control System and Oxygen System

  • Effective control of cockpit pressure and temperature
  • Effective temperature and humidity control of cockpit and avionics for optimum performance
  • Efficient Anti G system for Pilot
  • Oxygen supply duration three hours
Flight Control System

  • Composite Flight Control System comprising conventional controls with stability augmentation in roll and yaw axis and fly by wire in pitch axis
  • Quad-redundancy in Fly By Wire System
  • Autopilot with Altitude hold and Attitude hold modes
Fuel System

  • Total internal fuel 5130 lb (3000 liters)
  • Single point pressure refueling system
  • External Fuel
    • One center line drop tank 800 liters
    • Two under wing drop tanks 800/1100 liters

Avionics Suite

The avionics suite makes the JF-17 an effective weapon platform. The glass cockpit and hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) controls reduce pilot workload. Accurate navigation and weapon aiming information on the head up display help the pilot achieve his mission effectively. The multifunction displays provide information on engine, fuel, hydraulics, electrical, flight control and environmental control system on a need-to-know basis along with basic flight and tactical information. The capability has been built around highly modern state-of-the-art avionics equipment. The salient avionics equipment is as follows: 

  • Dual redundant mission computers
  • Dual redundant 1553 Mux bus architecture
  • Multimode Pulse Doppler Radar capable of tracking multiple targets with prioritized firing
  • Ring laser gyro inertial navigation system tied with GPS
  • Smart head up display with up front control panel. HUD minimum total Field of View is 25 degrees
  • Color video recording camera and video recorder (for SMFCDs)
  • Three smart multi function color displays
  • Air Data Computer
  • R/Altimeter
  • IFF Interrogator/Transponder
  • ACMI
  • BVR/Communication Data link
  • V / UHF Communication System

Weapons Capability

The aircraft is fitted with modern Stores Management System incorporating accurate weapon delivery modes and solutions involving minimum pilot workload. The aircraft is capable of carrying some of the most modern as well as conventional weapons, including:
  • 70-100 Km range beyond visual range active missiles
  • Highly agile Imaging infra red short range missiles
  • Air to sea missiles
  • Anti radiation missiles
  • Laser guided weapons
  • Programmable cluster bombs
  • Runway penetration bombs
  • General purpose bombs
  • Training bombs
  • 23 mm double barrel gun

Air-Air Configurations:









 Air-Ground Configurations: