Tanks

T-85 IIAP Main Battle Tank
Introduction: 
T-85 IIAP is a variant of Chinese T-85 main battle tanks with some improvements to existing systems and introduction of latest systems and weaponry. The original T-85 were manufactured at China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO). Pakistan is manufacturing these tanks at Heavy Industries Taxila under Chinese license. 
Engine: 
This tank is equipped with a 730 hp liquid cooled diesel engine which uses fixed shaft type transmission. Its total combat weight is about 41 Tons, giving the vehicle a power-to-weight ratio of about 17.80 hp/ton. With a ground pressure of 0.8 kg/cm. T-85 IIAP uses steel tracks which enables it to conduct operations in harsh desert terrain. Its suspension is reinforced by using  Shock Absorber & Torsion bars and rubber pads. 
Max Range & Speed: 
Due to its powerful engine and good weight to power ratio this tank can perform at max speed of 57km. With a maximum combat range over 600km, which enables it to strike deep with in enemy territory. 
Fire Power & Attack Features: 
T-85 IIAP carries wide range of weapons any where from, mounted anti-tank guided weapons (ATGW) to Anti Aircraft guns and powerful main gun.

It is fitted with 125mm smooth bore main gun which can fire wide array of projectiles such as Armour Piercing (AP), Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS), High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) and also High Explosive-Fragmentation (HE-FRAG). In addition to the main gun, it is also fitted with 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm air defence machine gun. Pakistan army has also used a local version of 12.7 mm air defence machine gun which has further enhanced the tanks abilities12.7mm gun is being manufactured at Pakistan Ordinance Factors (POF). POF is manufacturing all types of weapons for these tanks locally.

T-85 can carry large weapon load. It has a load of 40 projectiles on board for the main gun. It carries over 500 rounds of 12.7mm anti air craft machine gun and for it coaxial machine gun it carries a load of 2250 rounds. In addition to this T-80 IIAP also carries an additional 12 large grenades 
Rate Of Fire: 
The 125 mm automatic smoothbore gun fires between 6 and 8 rounds/minute. Reloading is done by 22 round Circular Carousel of Cassette Type reloader. 
Armour & Protection: 
T-85 IIAP uses one of the finest armours of Composite  type (Frontal Arc). In addition to that tank is also equipped with Fire Extinguishing & Explosion Suppression and Thermal Smoke Screen. 
Fire Control: 
Its equipped with  Image Stabilized Fire Control System with LRF ballistic computer and auto sensors. It also uses laser protected optics. In addition to that this tank also uses Image Intensifier Sighting System. Fire control is also supported by laser ranger finder of type Nd YAG  range of 200 to  5000m.
                        Al-Zarar Main Battle Tank



Requirement:
It was decided by the Pakistan Army that their inventory of Chinese origin Type 59 tanks was too large to be discarded and replaced, so a phased upgrade program was started by Heavy Industries Taxila in 1990. The idea was to upgrade the firepower, mobility and protection of the Type 59 to allow it to compete on the modern battlefield at a fraction of the cost of a modern Main Battle Tank (MBT). The first phase of the upgrade program was completed in 1997. The second phase started in 1998 when HIT began development and testing of a new tank, a Type 59 re-built with over 50 modifications, resulting in three prototypes with slightly differing specifications (different fire-control systems, for example). Many systems originally developed for HIT's Al- Khalid MBT were incorporated. The prototypes underwent extensive testing by HIT and the Pakistan Army, who selected the final version of the tank, dubbed Al-Zarrar.

Fire Power:

Al-Zarrar's primary armament is a 125 mm smooth bore tank gun with an auto frettaged, chrome-plated gun barrel. It is capable of firing APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS rounds as well as anti-tank guided missiles and a Pakistani DU (depleted uranium) round, the 125 mm Naiza. Naiza is capable of penetrating 550 mm of RHA armour at a distance of 2 km. Reloaded by a semi-automatic auto loader, the gun has a dual-axis stabilization system and thermal imaging sights integrated into the fire-control system for the commander and gunner. The image stabilized fire-control system includes a laser range-finder for accurate range information and ballistics computer to improve accuracy. An improved gun control system is also fitted.
The secondary armament consists of an external 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the roof of the turret, which can be aimed and fired from inside the tank, and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun.

Engine Performance:

The Al-Zarrar is powered by a liquid-cooled 12-cylinder diesel engine, giving a power output of 730 hp (540 kW) and torque output of 305 kg.m at 1300–1400 rpm. A combat weight of 40 tonnes gives Al-Zarrar a power-to-weight ratio of 18.3 hp/tonne and a top speed of 65 km/h. Crew comfort is improved over the Type 59 by a modified torsion bar suspension system.

Armour


Al-Zarrar uses modular composite armour and explosive reactive armour to give improved protection from anti-tank missiles, mines and other weapons. The Pakistani ATCOP LTS-1 laser threat warning system is fitted to inform the tank crew if the tank is targeted by a laser range-finder or laser designator. Smoke grenade launchers are fitted to the sides of the turret. An automatic fire-extinguishing and explosion suppression system is installed to improve crew survivability.

 Al-Khalid Main battel Tnak
 

Introduction
Al-Khalid is one of the newest and one of the most deadliest tanks in the world,  its a result of the advanced technology available in the world today. It meets severe desert conditions, with high performance. It represents the ideal integration of firepower, mobility and protection. This tank is created In Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) Pakistan. Pilot production is underway since November 2000.
Al-Khaild Tanks Unique Abilities
 Al-Khalid is capable of targeting the enemy in the dark of night. It is the only tank that has the ability to auto-track the enemy's tanks. Only French tanks have this capability. It is also as powerful as the German tank Leopard in terms of movement. The Al-Khalid tank's performance is much better than the Russian T-90-S tank, since its designed extreme temperatures.
Features &  Fire Power
Al-Khalid has been designed with a 125mm (48 caliber) smooth bore, auto-frettaged and chrome plated gun which can fire APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS conventional ammunition and missiles. It is equipped with muzzle reference system, and bi-axis stabilization. Elevation and azimuth control is achieved by electro-hydraulic power drives. The tank is also equipped with a 7.62 mm-coaxial MG, 12.7 mm externally mounted MG that can be fired with the hatch closed and grenade launchers.
The gunner is provided with a dual magnification day sight and the commander with a panoramic Hunter Killer sight for all around independent surveillance. Both sights are bi-axis image stabilized and have independent laser range finders.
Multi-Target Engagement Abilities 
The commander has the ability of acquiring a target independently while the gunner is engaging a previously selected one.
Rate Of Fire 
The automatic ammunition handling system, with 24 round ready-to-fire magazine further supplements the Hunter-Killer capability of the tank which can load at a rate of 8 rounds a minute. The presence of automatic target tracking system enables the tank to achieve a very high first round hit probability even while firing on a moving target while moving itself.
Night Vision

 
Night vision for the gunner and commander is achieved through a dual magnification thermal imaging sight. The powerful fire control system computer processes all the firing information, which includes inputs from its ten sensors and is integrated to both sights.
Fire Control
The ballistic computation time is less than one second. For accurate fire control, third generation gating facility has been provided. The result of such a modern fire control system is, routine first round hits on standard (8 ft x 8 ft) targets at ranges in excess of 2000 meters.
The tank with its 125mm gun has a remarkably stable platform, which is provided by a combination of soft recoil and an excellent suspension.
Wrapped around the fire control system are the ergonomic crew positions and controls. The tank commander, gunner and driver can virtually reach all their controls with little movement.
Engine
A 1200 horsepower super charged, diesel engine and semi-automatic transmission, provides mobility. An under Armour auxiliary power supply unit provides a significant reduction in fuel consumption during 'Silent Watch' and maintenance operations, as auxiliary functions can be performed without main engine power. The highly reliable suspension consists of torsion bars, hydraulic dampers and buffers that afford a high level of comfort for its crew.
Combat Weight & Speed

 
Besides a low silhouette, it is considerably smaller as compared to other modern tanks. Its maximum weight of 46 tons provides a double advantage; it is strategically easily deployed and is more agile. Its power to weight ratio, in excess of 26 HP/ton, gives the vehicle a maximum speed of around 70 km/h, acceleration from 0~ 30 km/h in less than 10 seconds.
Its low mean maximum pressure and the excellent ride given by its suspension make Al-Khalid an ideal vehicle to fight in any theater of operation.


Armour 
Al-Khalid has been designed to provide maximum protection and efficiency for its 3 men crew. Protection is afforded by use of modular composite Armour and explosive reactive Armour. Al-Khalid also offers enhanced protection through NBC, an effective Thermal Smoke Generation, Automatic Fire Extinguishing and Explosion Suppression Systems.


Limited Under Water Capabilities
The submerging system allows it to operate 5 meters under water. Navigation is assisted by the use of Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems.

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